Writing the True Self


Oxford's Taxonomy of Learning Strategies (1990)

    • I. Memory
      • A. Creating mental linkages 
                    Grouping, Associating/elaborating, Contextualizing words
      • B. Applying images and sounds
                    Imagery, Semantic Mapping, Keywords, Sounds in Memory
      • C. Reviewing well
                    Reviewing after increasingly longer intervals of time
      • D. Employing action
                    Physical response or sensation, mechanical techniques
    • II. Cognitive
      • A. Practicing
                    Repeating, Formally, Formulaics, Recombining, Naturalistically
      • B. Receiving and sending messages
                    Getting the idea quickly, Using resources
      • C. Analyzing and reasoning
                    Deductive, Expression analyzing, Contrastively across
                    languages, Translating, Transferring
        D. Creating structure for input and output
                    Taking notes, Summarizing, Highlighting
    • III. Compensation strategies
      • A. Guessing intelligently
                    Using linguistic and other clues
      • B. Overcoming limitations in speaking and writing
                    Mother tongue, Help!, Gesture, Avoidance, Topic
                    Selection, Approximating, Coining words, Circumlocution
    • I. Metacognitive Strategies
      • A. Centering your learning
                    Overviewing and linking, Paying attention, Just listening
      • B. Arranging and planning your learning
                    Meta-linguistics, Organizing, Setting goals, Identifying
                    purposes, Planning for a task, Seeking times to practice
      • C. Evaluating your learning
                    Self-monitoring, Self-evaluating
    • II. Affective Strategies
      • A. Lowering your anxiety
                    Relaxation/meditation, Music, Laughter
      • B. Encouraging yourself
                    Positive statements, Wise risk-taking, Rewarding yourself
      • C. Taking your emotional temperature
                    Body awareness, Emotion checklist, Diary, Sharing feelings
    • III. Social Strategies
      • A. Asking questions
                    Clarification/verification, Correction
      • B. Cooperating with others
                    Peer support, Interaction with native speakers
      • C. Empathizing with others
                    Developing cultural understanding, Becoming aware of
                    others’ thoughts and feelings

Oxford, R. L. (1990). Language learning strategies: What every teacher should know. Boston: Heinle & Heinle.